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مُساهمة من طرف SADOUN في الخميس 20 سبتمبر 2012 - 0:17

A Definition of Intelligence
Intelligence has been an important and controversial topic throughout psychology's history. In addition to questions of exactly how to define intelligence, the debate continues today about whether it can be accurately measured. While psychologists often disagree about the definition and causes of intelligence, research on intelligence plays an important role in many areas including policy decisions regarding how much funding should be given to educational programs, the use of testing to screen job applicants and the use of testing to identify children who need additional academic assistance.
The term "intelligence quotient," or IQ, was first coined in the early twentieth century by a German psychologist named William Stern. Since that time, intelligence testing has emerged as a widely used tool that has led to the development of many other tests of skill and aptitude. However, it continues to spur debate and controversy over the use of intelligence tests, cultural biases, influences on intelligence and even the very way we define intelligence.
Major questions about intelligence and IQ testing:
• Is intelligence a single ability, or does it involve an assortment of multiple skills and abilities?
• Is intelligence inherited, or does the environment play a larger role?
• Are intelligence tests biased?
• What do intelligence scores predict, if anything?
In order to explore these questions, psychologists have conducted a considerable amount of research on the nature, influences and effects of intelligence.
Howard Gardner, David Perkins, and Robert Sternberg have all been quite successful in helping spread knowledge about the meaning of "intelligence" and applications of this knowledge to education.
The study and measurement of intelligence has been an important research topic for nearly 100 years IQ is a complex concept, and researchers in this field argue with each other about the various theories that have been developed. There is no clear agreement as to what constitutes IQ or how to measure it. There is an extensive and continually growing collection of research papers on the topic. Howard Gardner (1983, 1993), Robert Sternberg (1988, 1997), and David Perkins (1995) have written widely sold books that summarize the literature and present their own specific points of view.
The following definition is a composite from various authors. Intelligence is a combination of the ability to:
1. Learn. This includes all kinds of informal and formal learning via any combination of experience, education, and training.
2. Pose problems. This includes recognizing problem situations and transforming them into more clearly defined problems.
3. Solve problems. This includes solving problems, accomplishing tasks, fashioning products, and doing complex projects.
This definition of intelligence is a very optimistic one. It says that each of us can become more intelligent. We can become more intelligent through study and practice, through access to appropriate tools, and through learning to make effective use of these tools.
Howard Gardner
Some researchers in the field of intelligence have long argued that people have a variety of different intelligences. A person may be good at learning languages and terrible at learning music--or vice versa. A single number (a score on an IQ test) cannot adequately represent the complex and diverse capabilities of a human being.
Gardner defines intelligence as:
“The capacity to solve problems or fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings. It is the ability to respond successfully to new situations and the capacity to learn from one’s past experiences.”
Howard Gardner has proposed a theory of multiple intelligences. This theory suggests that traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too limited. Gardner first outlined his theory in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, where he suggested that all people have different kinds of "intelligences." Gardner proposed that there are eight intelligences, and has suggested the possible addition of a ninth known as "existentialist intelligence".
In order to capture the full range of abilities and talents that people possess, Gardner suggests that people do not have just an intellectual capacity, but have many different intelligences including musical, interpersonal, spatial-visual and linguistic intelligences.
While a person might be particularly strong in a specific area, such as musical intelligence, they most likely possess a range of abilities. For example, an individual might be strong in verbal, musical and naturalistic intelligence.
Gardner’s theory has come under criticism from both psychologists and educators. These critics argue that Gardner’s definition of intelligence is too broad, and that his eight different "intelligences" simply represent talents, personality traits and abilities. Gardner’s theory also suffers from a lack of supporting empirical research4.
Despite this, the theory of multiple intelligences enjoys considerable popularity with educators. Many teachers utilize multiple intelligences in their teaching philosophy and work to integrate Gardner’s theory into the classroom.
Gardner wrote the Frames of Mind in 1983 where he described his findings and the purpose of Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory. To sum it up, he stated different ways humans think and interact with the world. He was interested in creating a more complete understanding of the mind and intelligence.
Gardner created a study using people with extraordinary talents, gifted children, and “normal” people, as well as people from a diverse background (education, culture, ethnicity, life experiences, etc.). What he found were eight distinct intellectual potentials (intelligences) that are common to all human beings across cultures, age, groups, and biological traits.
Key Points
• Every human has all eight intelligences. Each intelligence is relatively independent of the others.
• These intelligences are both innate and learned, and can be further developed in a nurturing environment.
• Individuals tend to be more developed in some intelligences than others.
• We tend to use a combination of intelligences in most things we do

The 8 intelligences that Gardner identified are listed below:
Verbal- Linguistic Intelligence
Students learn through relating words and language. They stimulate intelligence through listening, speaking, reading, writing and debating ideas (lawyers and teachers).
Logical- Mathematical Intelligence
Students usually excel at logical problems and equations. They do not require verbal articulation; they can churn the problem in their own head. Problem-solution is natural. Students think in cause and effect connections and are very interested in calculating, quantifying, and prepositions (Computer programmers, engineers, scientist, and accountants).
Bodily- Kinesthetic Intelligence
The individuals are in control of their movements, agility, grace, and balance. They produce knowledge through their ideas and feelings. They are very fluent with their fine-motor coordination and they need to move around (actors, mimes, athletes, dancers, and surgeons).
Visual- Spatial Intelligence
Students generally attempt to understand concepts or objects by visualizing what the teacher is teaching, they like charts, maps, illustrations, art, etc.
Musical- Rhythmic Intelligence
Students learn well through songs, patterns, rhythms, instruments and musical expression. They are sensitive to sounds and words (musicians, critics and performers).
Interpersonal Intelligence
It is the ability to think and also understand the other person. The individuals tend to be personable and usually have meaningful relationships with family and friends. They possess a sensitivity to others feelings, moods and outlook. They are good in organizing events, and they are good negotiators (politicians, leaders and clergy).
Intrapersonal Intelligence
It is the people‘s ability to understand their own sense of ―self‖. They are aware of who they are, their own feelings and can establish personal goals. They love to work alone (novelists, therapists, psychologists and philosophers).
Naturalistic- Scientific Intelligence
These students love the outdoors and enjoy exploring their surroundings. They desire to learn about nature and seem to be in touch what goes in around them (farmers, ranchers, hunters, conservationists and biologists).

Gardner's theory argues that intelligence, particularly as it is traditionally defined, does not sufficiently encompass the wide variety of abilities humans display. In his conception, a child who masters multiplication easily is not necessarily more intelligent overall than a child who struggles to do so. The second child may be stronger in another kind of intelligence, and therefore may best learn the given material through a different approach, may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or may even be looking through the multiplication learning process at a fundamentally deeper level that hides a potentially higher mathematical intelligence than in the one who memorizes the concept easily.
• Liwanag, Rodrigo Jr. B. Applied Linguistics
• Moursund, D.G. (1999). Project-based Learning Using Information Technology. Eugene, Oregon: ISTE.

• College Help through Howard Gardner’s Theory [Online]. Accessed 04/27/2012:
• Howard Gardner, Official site, [Online]. Accessed 04/27/2012:
• What are Multiple Intelligences? [Online]. Accessed 04/27/2012:

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تاريخ التسجيل : 03/04/2009
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